R₂eD AVM Hemorrhage Risk

Estimate risk of hemorrhage in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations


The management of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains unclear and there may be benefit in developing a predictive tool that could guide hemorrhage risk stratification. The variables used to estimate the risk of presentation with hemorrhage can be summarized by the acronym ReD AVM.

  • Race
  • Exclusive deep location
  • AVM size
  • Venous drainage (exclusive deep vs other)
  • Monoarterial feeding

This tool is meant to supplement clinical decision-making in the treatment of unruptured AVMs. It is best used in conjunction with risk estimates of surgical risk such as the Spetzler-Martin grade.


Feghali J., Yang W., Xu R., Liew J., McDougall C.G., Caplan J.M., Tamargo R.J., Huang J.

Stroke. 2019; 50:1703-1710 doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025054

The R₂eD AVM Hemorrhage Risk calculator is created by QxMD.

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1. White Race?

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