MS: Mitral Valve Area (Hakki)


The Hakki formula (with subsequent correction by Angel) is a simplified formula for estimating the MVA using the average of instantaneous early, middle, and late diastolic peak-to-peak gradients across the valve.


Oh J, Seward JB, Tajik AJ.

The Echo Manual 3rd edition. Lippincott, Williams, Wilkins. 2007

Kern MJ.

The Cardiac Catheterization Handbook 4th Edition. Mosby 2003

Hakki AH, Iskandrian AS, Bemis CE, Kimbiris D, Mintz GS, Segal BL, Brice C.

Circulation 1981, 63 (5): 1050-5

Angel J, Soler-Soler J, Anivarro I, Domingo E.

Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis 1985, 11 (2): 127-38

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