MS: Mitral Valve Area (Hakki)
The Hakki formula (with subsequent correction by Angel) is a simplified formula for estimating the MVA using the average of instantaneous early, middle, and late diastolic peak-to-peak gradients across the valve.
Robert O Bonow, Blase A Carabello et al.
ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): developed in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists: endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
Circulation 2006 August 1, 114 (5): e84-231
Oh J, Seward JB, Tajik AJ.
The Echo Manual 3rd edition. Lippincott, Williams, Wilkins. 2007
The Cardiac Catheterization Handbook 4th Edition. Mosby 2003
Hakki AH, Iskandrian AS, Bemis CE, Kimbiris D, Mintz GS, Segal BL, Brice C.
Circulation 1981, 63 (5): 1050-5
Angel J, Soler-Soler J, Anivarro I, Domingo E.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis 1985, 11 (2): 127-38
The MS: Mitral Valve Area (Hakki) calculator is created by QxMD.