MS: Mitral Valve Area (Hakki)


The Hakki formula (with subsequent correction by Angel) is a simplified formula for estimating the MVA using the average of instantaneous early, middle, and late diastolic peak-to-peak gradients across the valve.


Oh J, Seward JB, Tajik AJ.

The Echo Manual 3rd edition. Lippincott, Williams, Wilkins. 2007

Kern MJ.

The Cardiac Catheterization Handbook 4th Edition. Mosby 2003

Hakki AH, Iskandrian AS, Bemis CE, Kimbiris D, Mintz GS, Segal BL, Brice C.

A simplified valve formula for the calculation of stenotic cardiac valve areas.

Circulation 1981, 63 (5): 1050-5

Angel J, Soler-Soler J, Anivarro I, Domingo E.

Hemodynamic evaluation of stenotic cardiac valves: II. Modification of the simplified valve formula for mitral and aortic valve area calculation.

Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis 1985, 11 (2): 127-38

The MS: Mitral Valve Area (Hakki) calculator is created by QxMD.

Created by on 28/12/2015

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