MS: Mitral Valve Area (PISA)
When the aliasing velocity is high (ie > 40 cm/s) the bottom surface of the PISA hemisphere is relatively flat, which negates the need for an angle correction.
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Circulation 2006 August 1, 114 (5): e84-231
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The Cardiac Catheterization Handbook 4th Edition. Mosby 2003
Rodriguez L. et al.
Validation of the proximal flow convergence method. Calculation of orifice area in patients with mitral stenosis.
Circulation 1993, 88 (3): 1157-65
The MS: Mitral Valve Area (PISA) calculator is created by QxMD.