Hemodynamics (Echo)


Normal cardiac output is 4-8 L/min

Normal cardiac index is 2.5-4 L/min/m2

Normal stroke volume is 60-100 ml/beat

Normal stroke volume index is 33-47 ml/beat/m2

A Low CO/CI may be observed with hypovolemia, hypoperfusion, shock, arrhythmia, and severe metabolic acidosis

A High CO/CI may be observed with hypoxia, the use of positive inotropes, early septic shock and anemia

A Low SV/SVI may be observed with impaired LV contractility, acidosis, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, increased afterload, decreased preload and tachycardia

A High SV/SVI may be observed with bradycardia, the use of positive inotropes, and decreases in afterload


Oh J, Seward JB, Tajik AJ.

The Echo Manual 3rd edition

The Hemodynamics (Echo) calculator is created by QxMD.

Created by on 02/07/2015

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