Normal cardiac output is 4-8 L/min
Normal cardiac index is 2.5-4 L/min/m2
Normal stroke volume is 60-100 ml/beat
Normal stroke volume index is 33-47 ml/beat/m2
A Low CO/CI may be observed with hypovolemia, hypoperfusion, shock, arrhythmia, and severe metabolic acidosis
A High CO/CI may be observed with hypoxia, the use of positive inotropes, early septic shock and anemia
A Low SV/SVI may be observed with impaired LV contractility, acidosis, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, increased afterload, decreased preload and tachycardia
A High SV/SVI may be observed with bradycardia, the use of positive inotropes, and decreases in afterload
Oh J, Seward JB, Tajik AJ.
The Echo Manual 3rd edition
Huntsman LL, et al.
Circulation 1983, 67 (3): 593-602
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