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ECG: Heart RateCardiology, EmergencyGlomerulosclerosis on Biopsy (2015)Nephrology • Differentiate glomerulosclerosis from kidney disease rather than agingROKS - Recurrence Of Kidney Stone (2014)Nephrology, Urology • Predict risk of recurrent kidney stonesSolitary Pulmonary Nodule Malignancy RiskRespirologyA-a GradientEmergency, Respirology, Critical Care • Used to determine cause of hypoxemiaABCD² ScoreNeurology / Neurosurgery, Geriatrics • Guide admission in TIA based on ABCD² ScoreAccess RecirculationNephrologyInfarct Size - AnteriorCardiology, EmergencyInfarct Size - InferiorCardiology, EmergencyAnion GapEmergency, Nephrology • Calculate anion gap for use in acid-base disorders.APACHE IINephrology, Gastroenterology, Critical Care, Anesthesiology • Estimate mortality in the critically illAPGAREmergency, Pediatrics • Newborn assessmentAR: Quantification (Volumetric)CardiologyAR: Regurgitant Orifice (PISA)CardiologyAS: Aortic Valve Area (Cont)Cardiology • Estimate aortic valve areaAS: Aortic Valve Area (DVI)Cardiology • Estimate aortic valve areaAS: Aortic Valve Area (Gorlin)Cardiology • Estimate aortic valve areaAS: Aortic Valve Area (Hakki)Cardiology • Estimate aortic valve areaAutoimmune Hepatitis DiagnosisGastroenterology • Clarify the diagnose of autoimmune hepatitisAVM Rupture RiskNeurology / NeurosurgerySurgery in Asymptomatic Aortic StenosisCardiology, Cardiac Surgery • Assess timing of surgery in severe, asymptomatic aortic stenosisPCI mortality - Canada ScoreCardiologyBishop ScoreObstetrics • Predict whether induction of labor will be required.Blatchford ScoreGastroenterology • Assess if intervention is required for acute upper GI bleeding.Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: OBRICardiology • The Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index (OBRI) estimates risk of bleeding in AF while on oral anticoagulation.BMI and BSA (Mosteller)General Calculators, Hematology, Oncology, Anesthesiology • Calculate BMI and Body Surface Area using Mosteller formulaBODE Index for COPDRespirology • Estimate prognosis in COPDBMI and BSA (Du Bois)General Calculators, Hematology, Oncology, Anesthesiology • Determine body mass index and body surface area using Du Bois methodPretest Probablity of CADCardiologyCanadian CT Head RuleEmergency, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Orthopedics, Surgery, Medical Imaging • Determine which minor head injury patients need head CT imagingCanadian C-Spine RuleEmergency, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Orthopedics, Medical Imaging • Determine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoidedHEART Score | Chest pain in the ERCardiology, Emergency • Risk stratify patients with chest pain in the ERBC Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care ScoreCardiology, Cardiac Surgery • Predict mortality after cardiac surgery based on preoperative and intraoperative variables assessed at admission to a cardiac surgery ICUACC/AHA CV Risk Calculator (2013)Cardiology, Preventive Medicine, Anesthesiology, Geriatrics • Estimate 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseaseCHADS2 Score for AFCardiology, Emergency, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Geriatrics • Assess risk of stroke in atrial fibrillationCHA2DS2-VASc Score for AFCardiology, Emergency, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Geriatrics • Replacement for CHADS2 for stroke prediction in atrial fibrillationFramingham CHF CriteriaCardiologyChild Pugh ScoreEmergency, Infectious Disease, Gastroenterology, Critical Care • Determine severity of cirrhosis.CMML Prognostic Scoring Systems (from Spain and Dusseldorf)Hematology, Oncology • Assess risk of progression to AML and early mortality in CMMLContrast Nephropathy Post-PCINephrology, Critical Care • Estimate risk of AKI after percutaneous coronary interventionECG: Corrected QTCardiology, EmergencyCorticosteroid EquivalenceRespirologyCerebral Perfusion PressureNeurology / Neurosurgery, Critical CareCrCl Cockroft-GaultNephrologyCrCl from 24h UrineNephrology • Calculate creatinine clearance from a 24h urine collection.CRUSADE Score for Post-MI Bleeding RiskCardiology • Estimate bleeding risk after NSTEMI. CT Severity Index (Pancreatitis)Gastroenterology, Medical Imaging • Predict complication and mortality rate in pancreatitis, based on CT findings (Balthazar score)Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Cleveland Clinic Score by Thakar)Cardiology, Nephrology, Cardiac Surgery, Critical Care • Estimate risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery.ECG: Cycle LengthCardiology, EmergencyDialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Mehta)Cardiology, Nephrology, Cardiac Surgery, Critical Care • Estimate the risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery (Mehta model)Discriminant Function (Alcoholic Hepatitis)GastroenterologyDiffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Prognosis (R-IPI)Hematology, Oncology • Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphomaDubbo Osteoporotic Fracture RiskEndocrinology, Geriatrics • Assess risk of osteoporotic fractureDuke Criteria for EndocarditisCardiology, Infectious Disease • Diagnose endocarditisDuke Treadmill ScoreCardiologyDVT Clinical Probability (Well's)Emergency, Urology, Respirology, Hematology, Orthopedics, Critical Care, Medical Imaging • Determine pretest probability of DVT to guide workupSyncope - EGSYS ScoreCardiology, Geriatrics • Which patients with syncope should be admitted?Ejection Fraction (Simplified)CardiologyEmory Model (TIPSS)GastroenterologyEthmoid Sinus CarcinomaOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Hypopharyngeal CarcinomaOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Lund-Mackay Sinusitis StageInfectious Disease, Otolaryngology (ENT) • Assess severity of chronic rhinosinusitis and assess response to therapy.Maxillary Sinus CarcinomaOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Mucosal MelanomaOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Nasopharyngeal CarcinomaOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Oral Cavity CarcinomaOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Oropharyngeal CarcinomaOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Salivary Gland CarcinomaOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Thyroid Carcinoma: AnaplasticOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Thyroid Carcinoma: MedullaryOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Thyroid Carcinoma: Well-DifferentiatedOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Epworth Sleepiness ScaleRespirology • Screen for excessive sleepiness or follow response to treatment for a sleep disorder.Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI)Emergency, Urology, Respirology, Hematology, Orthopedics, Critical Care • Predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolismExercise Capacity (METs)CardiologySAH Fisher GradeNeurology / NeurosurgeryFollicular Lymphoma prognosisHematology, Oncology • Determine prognosis in follicular lymphoma.Forrester HF ClassCardiologyForrest ClassificationGastroenterology • Estimate risk of re-bleeding post-endoscopy for upper GI bleeding.Fosphenytoin LoadNeurology / NeurosurgeryFOUR ScoreNeurology / Neurosurgery, Critical CareFractional ShorteningCardiologyFractional Excretion of SodiumEmergency, Nephrology, Critical Care • Differentiate pre-renal AKI from ATN.Fractional Excretion of UreaNephrology, Critical Care • Identify a "pre-renal" state in patients using diureticsLipid Lowering Guidelines using Framingham (2008)EndocrinologyLipid Lowering Guidelines using Framingham (ATP-III)EndocrinologyMortality in IPF (GAP Index)RespirologyGlasgow Coma Scale (GCS)Neurology / Neurosurgery, Surgery, Critical Care, Anesthesiology • Document level of consciousness.Risk of Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 1 Year Post TransplantNephrologyRisk of Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 7 Days Post TransplantNephrologyRisk of Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted at Time of TransplantNephrologyAcute GVHD GradingHematology, Oncology • Determine severity in acute graft versus host disease.Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: HAS-BLED ScoreCardiology, Geriatrics • Understand the risk of bleeding from anticoagulation in atrial fibrillationHodgkin's Disease | PrognosisHematology, Oncology • Estimate prognosis in Hodgkin's disease.Hematopoietic cell transplantation - specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI)Hematology, OncologyMDS Revised - International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R)Hematology, Oncology • Assess mortality and progression to acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndromeHemodynamics (Echo)CardiologyCardiac Output - FickCardiology, Critical Care, Anesthesiology • Calculate cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and stroke volume indexHenderson-HasselbalchNephrologyHIT 4T's scoreHematology, Cardiac Surgery • Diagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.Hodgkin's Marrow InvolvementHematology, Oncology • Estimate likelihood of bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma.SAH Hunt & Hess ScaleNeurology / NeurosurgeryICH FUNC ScoreNeurology / Neurosurgery, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation • Predict likelihood of functional independence after intracranial hemorrhageICH ScoreNeurology / Neurosurgery • Estimate mortality after intracerebral hemorrhageICH VolumeNeurology / NeurosurgeryMetabolic Syndrome (IDF)CardiologyIn-flight PaO₂ (based on ABG)RespirologyIn-flight PaO₂ (ABG & PFT)RespirologyMDS Intnl Prognostic Scoring Sys (IPSS)Hematology, OncologyMultiple Myeloma Prognosis (ISS)Hematology, OncologyKidney Failure Risk Equation (8 Variable)Nephrology • Estimate risk of progression to end-stage renal disease in CKD patients using 8 variables.Killip ClassCardiology, Emergency, Critical Care • Estimate mortality in myocardial infarctionKt/V from PRUNephrologyKt/V DaugirdasNephrologyLaryngeal Carcinoma: GlotticOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Laryngeal Carcinoma: SubglotticOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Laryngeal Carcinoma: SupraglotticOncology, Otolaryngology (ENT)Left Atrial Systolic PressureCardiologyLV/RV Contractility (dp/dt)CardiologyMASCC Febrile Neutropenia RiskInfectious Disease, Hematology, Oncology • Assess risk in febrile neutropenia and appropriateness for outpatient management6-Month Mortality on HDNephrology • Estimate 6 month mortality on dialysisHome HD Candidacy (MATCH-D)NephrologyPD Candidacy (MATCH-D)Nephrology • Assess candidacy for peritoneal dialysisMayo Quadratic eGFRNephrologyPCI complication - MayoCardiologyMDRD eGFREmergency, Nephrology • Calculate eGFR using the MDRD formulaMDRD eGFR (6 Variable)NephrologyMDS Anemia - EPO/GCSF ResponseHematology, Oncology • Identify those with MDS likely to respond to stem-cell factors.MDS WHO Classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS)Hematology, Oncology • Estimate survival and risk of transformation to AML in myelodysplastic syndrome.Prognosis after TIPSS using MELD ScoreEmergency, Infectious Disease, GastroenterologyPrognosis in Alcoholic HepatitisGastroenterology • Estimates prognosis in alcoholic hepatitis using the MELD scoreHamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D or HDRS)Mental Health, Geriatrics • Determine severity of depressionSNAP-IV 26 - Teacher & Parent Rating ScalePediatrics, Mental Health • Assess children for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)MGUS PrognosisHematology, Oncology, Geriatrics • Determine risk of malignant progression to myleoma or lymphoproliferative disorder.MIPI - Mantle Cell Lymphoma PrognosisHematology, Oncology • Estimate prognosis in mantle cell lymphoma.Modified Bernoulli EquationCardiologyModified Fisher ScaleNeurology / NeurosurgeryModified Rankin Scale (mRS)Neurology / NeurosurgeryModified Strep ScoreOtolaryngology (ENT)MR: Quantification (PISA)CardiologyMR: Quantification (Volumetric)CardiologyMS: Wilkins' Echo ScoreCardiologyMS: Mitral Valve Area (Cont)CardiologyMS: Mitral Valve Area (Gorlin)CardiologyMS: Mitral Valve Area (PHT)CardiologyMS: Mitral Valve Area (PISA)CardiologyMS: Mitral Valve Area (Hakki)CardiologyMyocardial Performance Index (CO and ET)CardiologyMyocardial Performance Index (IVRT and IVCT)CardiologyNasal Cannula FiO₂ EstimationRespirologyNEXUS C-Spine CriteriaEmergency, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Orthopedics, Surgery, Medical Imaging • Determine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoidedNSCLC StageRespirology, OncologyTIMI Risk Score (NSTEMI)Cardiology, Emergency, Critical Care • Guide therapeutic decisions in non-ST elevation MI. Carboplatin AUC Dosing (Calvert)OncologyPrognosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma (UISS)Urology, Oncology • Estimate survival in renal cell carcinomaOsmolal GapEmergency, Nephrology • Detect unmeasured osmoles, such as toxic alcoholsOttawa Ankle RulesEmergency, Orthopedics, Medical Imaging • Does this ankle injury require an x-ray?Ottawa Knee RulesEmergency, Orthopedics, Surgery, Medical Imaging • Does this knee injury require an x-ray?PaO₂:FiO₂ RatioRespirologyParkland FormulaEmergency, Surgery, Critical Care • Manage IV fluids required in burnsPCI mortality - MichiganCardiologyPCWP (Echo)CardiologyPE Clinical ProbabilityEmergency, Urology, Respirology, Hematology, Orthopedics, Critical Care, Medical Imaging • Determine pretest probability of PE to guide workupPeak Expiratory Flow PredictionEmergency, RespirologyPediatric Endotracheal Tube SizeEmergency, Pediatrics, AnesthesiologyPediatric Glasgow Coma ScaleEmergency, Neurology / Neurosurgery, PediatricsPediatric Strep ScoreEmergency, Infectious Disease, PediatricsPELD Score - Age Younger Than 12 yearsEmergency, Pediatrics, Gastroenterology • PELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match systemDisability Rating Scale (DRS)Physical Medicine and RehabilitationModified Ashworth Scale (MAS)Physical Medicine and RehabilitationNational Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Staging System (NPUAP)Physical Medicine and RehabilitationDIPSS Prognosis in MyelofibrosisHematology, Oncology • Estimate prognosis in myelofibrosis.Pneumonia risk (CURB-65)Emergency, Respirology, Infectious Disease, Critical Care, Geriatrics • Estimate prognosis and determine disposition in community-acquired pneumonia.Pulmonary ResistanceCardiology, Critical CareRanson's CriteriaEmergency, Gastroenterology, Critical Care • Estimate mortality in patients with pancreatitis. Rate Pressure ProductCardiologyReynolds CAD RiskCardiologyAlcoholism - Risk of RelapseGastroenterologyAlcohol Relapse Risk after Liver TransplantGastroenterologyRevised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee Criteria)Cardiology, Anesthesiology • Rapid pre-op assessment using the Revised Cardiac Risk IndexAdult Onset Still's Disease, Diagnostic CriteriaRheumatology • Diagnose Adult Onset Still's Disease.Simplified Disease Activity Index for RA (SDAI)Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.Membranous PrognosisNephrology • Estimate risk of progressive renal dysfunction in membranous nephropathyRockall ScoreGastroenterology • Estimate risk of mortality after endoscopy for GI bleed.RV Systolic Pressure (TR Jet)CardiologyModified SAD PERSONS ScaleEmergency, Mental Health • Assess depression with the modified SAD PERSONS ScaleSeattle Heart Failure ModelCardiologyShunt Fraction (Echo)CardiologyShunt Fraction (Invasive)Cardiology, Critical CareSmoldering Multiple Myeloma PrognosisHematology, Oncology • Determine risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma.Spetzler-Martin ScoreNeurology / NeurosurgeryTIMI Risk Score (STEMI)Cardiology, Emergency, Critical CareStevenson HF ClassCardiologySystemic Vascular ResistanceCardiology, Critical Caret-PA Dosing in Acute StrokeNeurology / NeurosurgeryTICI ScoreNeurology / NeurosurgeryTranstubular K GradientNephrology • Workup hypokalemia and hyperkalemiaPercent Reduction of UreaNephrologyVALIANT Heart Failure Risk ScoreCardiologyAsymptomatic ICA (Internal Carotid Artery) Stenosis Surgical Risk StratificationCardiology, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Vascular Surgery, AnesthesiologyWarfarin Bleeding Risk - ElderlyCardiology, Geriatrics • Estimate 90 day risk of bleeding in patients on warfarin who are >65 yearsWater Deficit in HypernatremiaEmergency, Nephrology, Geriatrics • Determine water replacement in hypernatremiaWestley Croup ScoreEmergency, Infectious Disease, Pediatrics • Assess croup severityWFNS SAH ScaleNeurology / NeurosurgeryBefore Induction of AnaesthesiaUrology, Vascular Surgery, Surgery • Reduce peri-operative death with the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist - 1st step.Before Patient Leaves ORUrology, Vascular Surgery, Surgery • Last step in the surgical safety checklistBefore Skin IncisionUrology, Vascular Surgery, Surgery • 2nd step in the surgical safety checklistMembrane Transport TypeResidual Kidney FunctionResidual Urea ClearanceVolume of Distribution of UreaNephrologyPatient Characteristics?PD Prescription • Generate a personalized peritoneal dialysis prescription
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FINDRISC Diabetes Risk CalculatorEndocrinology • Estimate risk of developing diabetes and frequency of screening required.Due Date by LMPObstetrics, Medical Imaging, Anesthesiology • Pregnancy due date calculatorDue Date by UltrasoundObstetrics, Medical Imaging, Anesthesiology • Determine pregnancy due date using ultrasound resultsGestational AgeObstetrics, Medical ImagingGupta Perioperative Cardiac RiskCardiology, Urology, Surgery, Anesthesiology • Determine peri-operative risk for a wide array of surgeries.Ideal Body WeightGeneral CalculatorsPhenytoin Adjustment in Renal FailureNephrology, Neurology / NeurosurgeryPneumonia Severity Index (PORT Score)Respirology, Infectious Disease, Critical Care, Geriatrics • Determine need for admission in pneumoniaSerum Ascites to Albumin Gradient (SAAG)Gastroenterology • Determine if ascites due to portal hypertension.Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS)Orthopedics, Surgery • Assess limb-salvage potential in trauma to the extremity.eGFR using CKD-EPINephrology, Geriatrics • Calculate eGFR using the CKD-EPI formulaFramingham Risk Score (2008)CardiologyFramingham Risk Score (ATP-III)Cardiology • Determine lipid treatment using Framingham Risk ScoreRecognize Thrombotic MicroangiopathyNephrology, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Hematology
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Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorUrology, Respirology, Obstetrics, Orthopedics, Otolaryngology (ENT), Surgery, Critical Care, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of postoperative respiratory failureGRACECardiology, Emergency, Critical Care • The GRACE ACS risk calculator estimates risk of death following acute coronary syndrome (ACS)Calcium Correction for HypoalbuminemiaNephrology, Endocrinology • Adjust serum calcium in the setting of low albumin.Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Nephrology, Cardiac Surgery, Critical Care, Anesthesiology • Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortalityAlvarado Score for Acute AppendicitisEmergency, Surgery • Diagnose appendicitisCIWA-ArEmergency, Mental Health, Critical Care • Optimize benzodiazepine treatment of patients alcohol withdrawalPatient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)Mental Health, Geriatrics • Screening tool to assist in identifying major depressive disorderDRAGON Score for Post-TPA Stroke OutcomeNeurology / Neurosurgery, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation • The DRAGON Score predicts outcome at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients receiving tPA.NIH Stroke Scale/Score (NIHSS)Neurology / Neurosurgery • NIH Stroke Scale provides an assessment for stroke severity.SLICC SLE CriteriaRheumatology • The SLICC criteria are validated criteria for making the diagnosis of lupus.DAS28-CRP for Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.DAS28-ESR for Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.Geriatric Depression ScaleMental Health, Geriatrics • A questionnaire to screen for depression in geriatric populationsJones Criteria for Diagnosis of Rheumatic FeverCardiology, Infectious Disease, Rheumatology • Diagnose acute rheumatic feverClinical Disease Activity Index for RA (CDAI)Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis, without requiring lab work.Surgical Apgar ScoreVascular Surgery, Surgery • Assess surgical risk of complications or death at 30 days, as assessed in the post-operative period.Schwartz Pediatric Bedside eGFR (2009)Nephrology • The revised "bedside" pediatric eGFR requires only serum creatinine and height.Schwartz Pediatric eGFR, Full Model (2009)Nephrology • The full Schwartz pediatric eGFR calculation requires height, serum creatinine, cystatin C, blood urea nitrogen and gender.VSGNE Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (RAAA) Risk ScoreEmergency, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate mortality after open repair of ruptured AAAEuroscore IICardiac Surgery • Estimate risk of in-hospital death after cardiac surgery.3-Month Mortality in Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsNephrology, Geriatrics • Estimate the risk of early death (at 3 months) in elderly patients starting dialysis.Pre-test probability of CAD (CAD consortium)Cardiology, Emergency, Anesthesiology • Determine pre-test probability of coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain.ASDAS-CRP (Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score)Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis.ASDAS-ESR (Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score)Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis.Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsNephrology, Geriatrics • Determine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysisDiffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (IPI24)Hematology, Oncology • Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Aortic Stenosis Risk ScoreCardiology, Cardiac Surgery • Estimate risk of cardiovascular events in patients with aortic stenosisOttawa SAH Inclusion & ExclusionOttawa SAH RuleEmergency, Neurology / Neurosurgery • Use the Ottawa SAH Rule to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhageBASDAIRheumatology • Assess disease activity in Ankylosing SpondylitisVasculitis Damage Index (VDI)Rheumatology • Document any organ damage that has occurred in patients since the onset of vasculitisHCM Risk-SCDCardiology • Assess risk of sudden cardiac death and need for ICD in hypertrophic cardiomyopathyKidney Failure Risk Equation (4 Variable)Nephrology • Estimate risk of progression to end-stage renal disease in CKD patients using age, sex, eGFR and proteinuria.Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (NCCN-IPI)Hematology, Oncology • Estimate prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.CAM-ICUNeurology / Neurosurgery, Critical Care • Diagnose delirium in the intensive care unit.The Richmond Agitation Sedation Score (RASS)Neurology / Neurosurgery, Critical Care • Assess level of consciousness in the intensive care unit.Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: ATRIA Cardiology • Estimate bleeding risk for patients on warfarin.DIPSS Plus Score for Prognosis in MyelofibrosisHematology, Oncology • Estimate prognosis in myelofibrosis.Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Carotid EndarterectomyCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after carotid endarterectomyGAD-7 Anxiety ScaleMental Health, Geriatrics • Screen for generalized anxiety disorderPolymyalgia Rheumatica (2012 EULAR/ACR Provisional Criteria)Rheumatology, Geriatrics • Review EULAR/ACR criteria for polymyalgia rheumaticaScleroderma/Systemic Sclerosis (2013 EULAR/ACR Criteria)Rheumatology • Review EULAR/ACR criteria for sclerodermaSan Francisco Syncope RuleCardiology, Geriatrics • Identify those at low risk of adverse outcome after a syncopal episodeVascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | EVARCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after EVARVascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Infra-inguinal BypassCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after infra-inguinal bypassVascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Open AAA RepairCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after open AAA repairVQI: Respiratory Adverse Event Risk Post Vascular SurgeryRespirology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate the risk of pneumonia or respiratory failure after vascular surgeryFIB-4 for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatic FibrosisGastroenterology • Non-invasively identify hepatic fibrosisAPRI (AST to Platelet Ratio Index)Gastroenterology • Assess likelihood of fibrosis or cirrhosis non-invasively using AST and platelet count.PERC Rule for Pulmonary EmbolismEmergency, Urology, Respirology, Hematology, Medical Imaging • Use the PERC rule to rule out PE if no criteria are present and pre-test probability is <15%.RPDAI (Relapsing Polychondritis Disease Activity Index)Cardiology, Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in relapsing polychondritis.Revised Venous Clinical Severity ScoreVascular Surgery • Assess severity of venous disease.BISAP ScoreGastroenterology, Critical Care • Estimate disease severity in acute pancreatitis.SLEDAI-2KNephrology, Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in lupusSLICC/ACR Damage IndexRheumatology • Measure accumulated damage since onset of lupusCrohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI)Gastroenterology, Surgery • Assess disease activity in Crohn's diseaseInternational Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)Urology, Geriatrics • Assess severity of symptoms in benign prostatic hypertrophyMayo Early Screen for Discharge PlanningMedical Administration • Identify patients needing specialized discharge planning servicesMayo Score for Ulcerative Colitis ActivityGastroenterology, Surgery • Assess disease activity in ulcerative colitisNAFLD Fibrosis ScoreGastroenterology • Reduce the need for liver biopsy by identifying patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease likely or unlikely to have advanced fibrosisDialysis Duration Needed for Methanol IngestionNephrology • Estimate dialysis duration required for methanol poisoningDialysis Duration Needed for Ethylene Glycol IngestionNephrology • Estimate dialysis duration required for ethylene glycol poisoningTotal Body Water (Watson Formula)NephrologyNEXUS Chest Decision Instrument for Blunt Chest TraumaSurgery, Medical Imaging • Assess the need for chest imaging after blunt traumaChronic Kidney Disease Management: BC GuidelinesNephrology • Primary care management of CKD
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HOSPITAL ScoreMedical Administration • Determine risk of avoidable hospital readmissionMultiple Myeloma Prognosis (R-ISS)Hematology, Oncology • Revised international staging system for myelomaInjury Severity ScoreEmergency, Orthopedics, Surgery • Describe severity of traumatic injuryBrain Metastases Prognostic IndexOncology • Estimate prognosis in patients with brain metastasesMELD Score - Age above 12 yearsInfectious Disease, Gastroenterology • Scoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match systemCorrected Sodium in HyperglycemiaNephrology • As used in the new MELD score, to correct Na in the setting of hyperglycemiaPediatric Renal Angina IndexNephrology, Critical Care • Predict acute kidney injury in critically ill childrenSTARRT-AKI Enrollment CriteriaNephrology, Critical Care • Determine if patients meet criteria for the STARRT-AKI study.Serious Illness Conversation GuideOncology, Critical Care • Steps to elicit important information from your patients about their goals and valuesKinetic eGFR (KeGFR)Nephrology, Critical Care • Estimate GFR when creatinine is changing acutely (either rising or falling)PIM2Nephrology, Pediatrics, Critical Care • Paediatric Index of Mortality, revised versionBase ExcessNephrology • Used in assessing acid-base statusSerious Renal Dysfunction Post-PCINephrology, Critical Care • Assess risk of dialysis or severe increase in creatinine after PCIDAPT ScoreCardiology • Which patients should remain on dual anti-platelet therapy 1 year following coronary stent treatment?PCDAIPediatrics, Gastroenterology • Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity IndexCLL-IPIHematology • The International Prognostic Index for patients with CLLModified Marshall ScoreGastroenterology, Surgery • A definition of organ failure in acute pancreatitisInternational Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5)Urology • Assess erectile dysfunctionCRRT Dosing CalculatorNephrology, Critical Care • Calculate desired dose of dialysate in CRRTModified Glasgow Imrie Severity Criteria for Acute PancreatitisEmergency, Gastroenterology, Surgery, Critical Care • Predict outcome in acute pancreatitisCanadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS)Cardiology, Emergency • Estimate prognosis among patients presenting to emergency with syncopeAlberta Croup SeverityEmergency, Infectious Disease, PediatricsHouse BrackmannOtolaryngology (ENT)NYHA Functional ClassCardiologyBellucci ClassificationOtolaryngology (ENT)KDIGO AKI StagingNephrology, Critical Care • Classification in acute kidney injury (AKI)ISPD Guidelines for Peritoneal AccessNephrologyTerms of Use and Privacy PolicyAnterior Dermatome MapNeurology / NeurosurgeryBlood on MRINeurology / NeurosurgeryRule of NinesEmergency, Critical Care • Estimate surface area of burnsHead and Neck Dermatome MapNeurology / NeurosurgeryPosterior Dermatome MapNeurology / NeurosurgeryTop View Dermatome MapNeurology / NeurosurgeryTerms of Use - WebFree Fracture Management eBook
OverviewDisclaimer & Use of the Guide
Catheter Insertion and Care
Preoperative Management
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Perioperative and Intraoperative Management
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Postoperative Management
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Chronic Care of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Noninfectious Complications
Pericatheter and Subcutaneous Leaks
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Peritoneal Catheter Obstruction
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Hernia
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Abdominal Discomfort During Infusion and Drain
Key AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Pneumoperitoneum (Shoulder Pain)
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Hemoperitoneum
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Hydrothorax
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Catheter Adapter Disconnect or Fracture of Peritoneal Catheter
Key AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Infectious Complications: Peritonitis Management
Initial Empiric Management of Peritonitis
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes EvaluationInitial Empiric Management of PeritonitisStaphyloccocus aureus PeritonitisEnterococcus/Streptococcus PeritonitisOther Single Gram-positive Organism PeritonitisPseudomonas PeritonitisOther Single Gram-negative Organism PeritonitisPolymicrobial PeritonitisCulture-negative PeritonitisFungal PeritonitisPeritonitis Due to MycobacteriumRelapsing PeritonitisPeritonitis Terminology
Infectious Complications: Management of the Exit-site/Tunnel Infection
Introduction
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes EvaluationDiagnosis and Management of Exit-site/Tunnel Infection
Antibiotic Dosing Guidelines
Oral Antibiotics Used in Exit-site and Tunnel InfectionsExit-site Antibiotic ProphylaxisIntraperitoneal Antibiotic Dosing Recommendations for CAPD PatientsIntermittent Dosing of Antibiotics in Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD)
Appendix
Preoperative and Postoperative PD Catheter Insertion Instructions for PatientsPeritoneal ImagingPrinciples of Accurate Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Sampling and CulturingPeritoneal Effluent Culture Laboratory ProcessingPeritonitis Rate CalculationsDifferential Diagnosis of Non-infectious Cloudy EffluentProviding for a Safe Environment for Peritoneal DialysisNormal Bacterial Flora of the Human BodyReferencesAuthor Affiliations
Maintenance of RRF
Measurement of RRFUse of Antihypertensive Agents and Diuretis to Preserve RRF
Small-Solute Clearance
Prescription and Targets
Volume Management
Maintenance of Euvolemia and Diagnosis of HypervolemiaTreatment of HypervolemiaAssessment and Management of BP
Management of CV Disease in PD Patients
Dyslipidemia
Nutrition in PD
NutritionNutritional SupplementsCorrection of Impared Anabolism, Acidosis, and Gastroparesis
Management of Hyperglycemia
Glycemic ControlGlucose-Sparing Strategies
Introduction
OverviewMethods and Process for Guideline DevelopmentFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3
Maintenance of RRF
Measurement of RRF
Overview
Use of Antihypertensive Agents and Diuretics to Preserve RRF
OverviewBackground
Research
Overview
Small-Solute Clearance
Prescriptions and Targets
OverviewBackground
Volume Management
Maintenance of Euvolemia and Diagnosis of Hypervolemia
OverviewBackground
Treatment of Hypervolemia
OverviewBackground
Assessment and Management of BP
OverviewBackground
Management of CV Disease in PD Patients
Dyslipidemia
OverviewBackground
Coronary Artery Disease/Chronic Heart Failure
Overview
Research
Overview
Nutrition in PD
Nutrition
OverviewBackground
Nutritional Supplements
OverviewBackground
Correction of Impaired Anabolism, Acidosis, and Gastroparesis
OverviewBackground
Research
Overview
Management of Hyperglycemia
Glycemic Control
OverviewBackground
Glucose-Sparing Strategies
OverviewBackgroundDisclosuresReferences
AKI Definition Prevention and Treatment of AKI Contrast-induced AKI Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Introduction and Methodology
Introduction
IntroductionGlomerular filtration rate and serum creatinineOliguria and anuriaAcute tubular necrosis (ATN)ARFRIFLE criteriaAKI: acute kidney injury/impairmentValidation studies using RIFLELimitations to current definitions for AKIRationale for a guideline on AKISummary
Methodology
IntroductionGroup member selection and meeting processEvidence selection, appraisal, and presentationOutcome selection judgments, values, and preferencesGrading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendationsSPONSORSHIPDISCLAIMERSUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
AKI Definition
Definition and classification of AKI
IntroductionDefinition of AKIStaging AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary materialRisk assessmentIntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Evaluation and general management of patients with and at risk for AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch recommendationsSupplementary material
Clinical applications
IntroductionExamples of application of AKI definitionsEstimating baseline SCrExamples of application of AKI stagesUrine output vs. SCrTimeframe for diagnosis and stagingClinical judgmentPseudo-AKIAtypical AKISupplementary material
Diagnostic approach to alterations in kidney function and structure
Definitions of AKI, CKD and AKDGFR and SCrGFR/SCr algorithmOliguria as a measure of kidney functionKidney damageSmall kidneys as a marker of kidney damageIntegrated approach to AKI, AKD, and CKDSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary material
Prevention and Treatment of AKI
Hemodynamic monitoring and support for prevention and management of AKI
IntroductionFluids: Recommendations and RationaleAlbumin vs. SalineHydroxyethylstarch vs. SalineVasopressors: Recommendations and RationaleProtocolized Hemodynamic Management: Recommendations and RationaleProtocolized hemodynamic management strategies in septic shockGoal-directed therapy for hemodynamic support during the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patientsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
General supportive management of patients with AKI, including management of complications
Overview
Glycemic control and nutritional support
Glycemic control in critical illness: Recommendations and RationaleNutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of critically ill patients with AKITotal Energy Intake: Recommendations and RationaleProtein Intake: Recommendations and RationaleNutrition route: Recommendations and RationalePediatrics ConsiderationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
The use of diuretics in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleMannitolResearch Recommendations
Vasodilator therapy: dopamine, fenoldopam, and natriuretic peptides
Dopamine for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleFenoldopam for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsNatriuretic peptides for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Growth factor intervention
Recombinant Human (rh) IGF-1: Recommendations and RationaleErythropoietinResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Adenosine receptor antagonists
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Prevention of aminoglycoside- and amphotericin-related AKI
Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicityTreatment of Infections: Recommendations and RationalePatients with Normal Kidney Function in Steady State: Recommendations and RationaleWhen Treatment with Multiple Daily Dosing is Used for More than 24 Hours: Recommendations and RationaleWhen Treatment with Single-Daily Dosing is Used for More than 48 Hours: Recommendations and RationaleTopical or Local Applications of Aminoglycosides: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsAmphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Recommendations and RationaleTreatment of Systemic Mycoses or Parasitic Infections: Recommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Other methods of prevention of AKI in the critically ill
On-pump vs. off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsN-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC): Recommendations and RationaleNAC in critically ill patients: Recommendations and RationaleSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary Material
Contrast-induced AKI
Contrast-induced AKI: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis
BackgroundRecommendations and RationaleEpidemiology of CI-AKIPrognosis of CI-AKIResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Assessment of the population at risk for CI-AKI
Recommendations and RationaleRisk-factor questionnaireUrinary protein screeningOther risk factors of CI-AKIRisk models of CI-AKIPatients at Increased Risk for CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleNephrotoxicity of Gd chelatesNephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)Supplementary Material
Nonpharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI
IntroductionDose/Volume of Contrast-Media Administration: Recommendations and RationaleRoute of administration of contrast mediaResearch RecommendationsSelection of a Contrast Agent: Recommendations and RationaleHigh-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast mediaLow-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar contrast mediai.a. Iodixanol vs. ioxaglatei.v. AdministrationResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Pharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI
Fluid Administration: Recommendations and RationaleUse of oral fluids alone in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleRole of nac in the prevention of CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleTheophylline: Recommendations and RationaleFenoldopam: Recommendations and RationaleStatins in the prevention of CI-AKISupplementary Material
Effects of hemodialysis or hemofiltration
Recommendations and RationaleSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary material
Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationalePediatric considerations
Research Recommendations
Supplementary material
Criteria for stopping renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionWhen to discontinue RRT: Recommendations and RationaleUse of diuretics: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch Recommendations
Anticoagulation
IntroductionHow to decide to use anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationalePatients without an increased bleeding risk or impaired coagulation and not already receiving effective systemic anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationalePatients with increased bleeding risk who are not receiving anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationaleIn patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionUncuffed nontunneled dialysis catheter vs a tunneled catheter: Recommendations and RationaleWhen choosing a vein for insertion of a dialysis catheter in patients with AKI: Recommendations and RationaleUsing ultrasound guidance for dialysis catheter insertion: Recommendations and RationaleObtaining a chest radiograph promptly after placement and before first use of an internal jugular or subclavian dialysis catheter: Recommendations and RationaleTopical antibiotics: Recommendations and RationaleAntibiotic locks: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Dialyzer membranes for renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with AKI
IntroductionComplementary therapies in AKI patients: Recommendations and RationaleHemodynamically unstable patients: Recommendations and RationaleAKI patients with acute brain injury or other causes of increased intracranial pressure or generalized brain edema: Recommendations and RationaleProtocols for decreasing hemodynamic instability with intermittent RRTPeritoneal dialysisPediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Buffer solutions for renal replacement therapy in patients with AKI
IntroductionBuffer solution: Recommendations and RationaleDialysis fluids and replacement fluids in patients with AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Dose of renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionDosing: Recommendations and RationaleKt/V and Effluent Volume Rates: Recommendations and RationaleAdditional considerationsResearch RecommendationsSponsorshipDislcaimerSupplementary material
Organization and Acknowledgements
NoticeWork Group MembershipKDIGO Board MembersReference KeysAbbreviations and AcronymsAbstractForewordBiographic and Disclosure InformationAcknowledgmentsReferences
General Calculators
Anesthesiology
APACHE IIEstimate mortality in the critically illBMI and BSA (Mosteller)Calculate BMI and Body Surface Area using Mosteller formulaBMI and BSA (Du Bois)Determine body mass index and body surface area using Du Bois methodACC/AHA CV Risk Calculator (2013)Estimate 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseaseGlasgow Coma Scale (GCS)Document level of consciousness.Cardiac Output - FickCalculate cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and stroke volume indexPediatric Endotracheal Tube SizeRevised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee Criteria)Rapid pre-op assessment using the Revised Cardiac Risk IndexAsymptomatic ICA (Internal Carotid Artery) Stenosis Surgical Risk StratificationDue Date by LMPPregnancy due date calculatorDue Date by UltrasoundDetermine pregnancy due date using ultrasound resultsGupta Perioperative Cardiac RiskDetermine peri-operative risk for a wide array of surgeries.Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failureSequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortalityVSGNE Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (RAAA) Risk ScoreEstimate mortality after open repair of ruptured AAAPre-test probability of CAD (CAD consortium)Determine pre-test probability of coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain.Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Carotid EndarterectomyEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after carotid endarterectomyVascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | EVAREstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after EVARVascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Infra-inguinal BypassEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after infra-inguinal bypassVascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Open AAA RepairEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after open AAA repairVQI: Respiratory Adverse Event Risk Post Vascular SurgeryEstimate the risk of pneumonia or respiratory failure after vascular surgery
Cardiac Surgery
Cardiology
Aortic Stenosis/Outflow
Atrial Fibrillation
Bleeding Risk
Coronary Artery Disease
ECG
Echocardiography
Heart Failure
Hypertension
Invasive Hemodynamics
Miscellaneous
Mitral Regurgitation
Mitral Stenosis
PCI and Cardiac Surgery
Pre-operative Assessment
Risk Scores
Shunts
Syncope
Treadmill Testing
Critical Care
Cardiac ICU
Cardiac Output - FickCalculate cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and stroke volume indexKillip ClassEstimate mortality in myocardial infarctionTIMI Risk Score (NSTEMI)Guide therapeutic decisions in non-ST elevation MI. Shunt Fraction (Invasive)TIMI Risk Score (STEMI)Systemic Vascular ResistanceGRACEThe GRACE ACS risk calculator estimates risk of death following acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
REFERENCE BOOK
KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury
AKI Definition Prevention and Treatment of AKI Contrast-induced AKI Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Introduction and Methodology
Introduction
IntroductionGlomerular filtration rate and serum creatinineOliguria and anuriaAcute tubular necrosis (ATN)ARFRIFLE criteriaAKI: acute kidney injury/impairmentValidation studies using RIFLELimitations to current definitions for AKIRationale for a guideline on AKISummary
Methodology
IntroductionGroup member selection and meeting processEvidence selection, appraisal, and presentationOutcome selection judgments, values, and preferencesGrading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendationsSPONSORSHIPDISCLAIMERSUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
AKI Definition
Definition and classification of AKI
IntroductionDefinition of AKIStaging AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary materialRisk assessmentIntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Evaluation and general management of patients with and at risk for AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch recommendationsSupplementary material
Clinical applications
IntroductionExamples of application of AKI definitionsEstimating baseline SCrExamples of application of AKI stagesUrine output vs. SCrTimeframe for diagnosis and stagingClinical judgmentPseudo-AKIAtypical AKISupplementary material
Diagnostic approach to alterations in kidney function and structure
Definitions of AKI, CKD and AKDGFR and SCrGFR/SCr algorithmOliguria as a measure of kidney functionKidney damageSmall kidneys as a marker of kidney damageIntegrated approach to AKI, AKD, and CKDSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary material
Prevention and Treatment of AKI
Hemodynamic monitoring and support for prevention and management of AKI
IntroductionFluids: Recommendations and RationaleAlbumin vs. SalineHydroxyethylstarch vs. SalineVasopressors: Recommendations and RationaleProtocolized Hemodynamic Management: Recommendations and RationaleProtocolized hemodynamic management strategies in septic shockGoal-directed therapy for hemodynamic support during the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patientsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
General supportive management of patients with AKI, including management of complications
Overview
Glycemic control and nutritional support
Glycemic control in critical illness: Recommendations and RationaleNutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of critically ill patients with AKITotal Energy Intake: Recommendations and RationaleProtein Intake: Recommendations and RationaleNutrition route: Recommendations and RationalePediatrics ConsiderationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
The use of diuretics in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleMannitolResearch Recommendations
Vasodilator therapy: dopamine, fenoldopam, and natriuretic peptides
Dopamine for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleFenoldopam for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsNatriuretic peptides for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Growth factor intervention
Recombinant Human (rh) IGF-1: Recommendations and RationaleErythropoietinResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Adenosine receptor antagonists
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Prevention of aminoglycoside- and amphotericin-related AKI
Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicityTreatment of Infections: Recommendations and RationalePatients with Normal Kidney Function in Steady State: Recommendations and RationaleWhen Treatment with Multiple Daily Dosing is Used for More than 24 Hours: Recommendations and RationaleWhen Treatment with Single-Daily Dosing is Used for More than 48 Hours: Recommendations and RationaleTopical or Local Applications of Aminoglycosides: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsAmphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Recommendations and RationaleTreatment of Systemic Mycoses or Parasitic Infections: Recommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Other methods of prevention of AKI in the critically ill
On-pump vs. off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsN-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC): Recommendations and RationaleNAC in critically ill patients: Recommendations and RationaleSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary Material
Contrast-induced AKI
Contrast-induced AKI: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis
BackgroundRecommendations and RationaleEpidemiology of CI-AKIPrognosis of CI-AKIResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Assessment of the population at risk for CI-AKI
Recommendations and RationaleRisk-factor questionnaireUrinary protein screeningOther risk factors of CI-AKIRisk models of CI-AKIPatients at Increased Risk for CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleNephrotoxicity of Gd chelatesNephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)Supplementary Material
Nonpharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI
IntroductionDose/Volume of Contrast-Media Administration: Recommendations and RationaleRoute of administration of contrast mediaResearch RecommendationsSelection of a Contrast Agent: Recommendations and RationaleHigh-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast mediaLow-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar contrast mediai.a. Iodixanol vs. ioxaglatei.v. AdministrationResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Pharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI
Fluid Administration: Recommendations and RationaleUse of oral fluids alone in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleRole of nac in the prevention of CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleTheophylline: Recommendations and RationaleFenoldopam: Recommendations and RationaleStatins in the prevention of CI-AKISupplementary Material
Effects of hemodialysis or hemofiltration
Recommendations and RationaleSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary material
Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationalePediatric considerations
Research Recommendations
Supplementary material
Criteria for stopping renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionWhen to discontinue RRT: Recommendations and RationaleUse of diuretics: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch Recommendations
Anticoagulation
IntroductionHow to decide to use anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationalePatients without an increased bleeding risk or impaired coagulation and not already receiving effective systemic anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationalePatients with increased bleeding risk who are not receiving anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationaleIn patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionUncuffed nontunneled dialysis catheter vs a tunneled catheter: Recommendations and RationaleWhen choosing a vein for insertion of a dialysis catheter in patients with AKI: Recommendations and RationaleUsing ultrasound guidance for dialysis catheter insertion: Recommendations and RationaleObtaining a chest radiograph promptly after placement and before first use of an internal jugular or subclavian dialysis catheter: Recommendations and RationaleTopical antibiotics: Recommendations and RationaleAntibiotic locks: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Dialyzer membranes for renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with AKI
IntroductionComplementary therapies in AKI patients: Recommendations and RationaleHemodynamically unstable patients: Recommendations and RationaleAKI patients with acute brain injury or other causes of increased intracranial pressure or generalized brain edema: Recommendations and RationaleProtocols for decreasing hemodynamic instability with intermittent RRTPeritoneal dialysisPediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Buffer solutions for renal replacement therapy in patients with AKI
IntroductionBuffer solution: Recommendations and RationaleDialysis fluids and replacement fluids in patients with AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Dose of renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionDosing: Recommendations and RationaleKt/V and Effluent Volume Rates: Recommendations and RationaleAdditional considerationsResearch RecommendationsSponsorshipDislcaimerSupplementary material
Organization and Acknowledgements
NoticeWork Group MembershipKDIGO Board MembersReference KeysAbbreviations and AcronymsAbstractForewordBiographic and Disclosure InformationAcknowledgmentsReferences
ICU AKI
APACHE IIEstimate mortality in the critically illContrast Nephropathy Post-PCIEstimate risk of AKI after percutaneous coronary interventionDialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Cleveland Clinic Score by Thakar)Estimate risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery.Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Mehta)Estimate the risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery (Mehta model)Fractional Excretion of SodiumDifferentiate pre-renal AKI from ATN.Fractional Excretion of UreaIdentify a "pre-renal" state in patients using diureticsSequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortalityPediatric Renal Angina IndexPredict acute kidney injury in critically ill childrenSTARRT-AKI Enrollment CriteriaDetermine if patients meet criteria for the STARRT-AKI study.Kinetic eGFR (KeGFR)Estimate GFR when creatinine is changing acutely (either rising or falling)PIM2Paediatric Index of Mortality, revised versionSerious Renal Dysfunction Post-PCIAssess risk of dialysis or severe increase in creatinine after PCICRRT Dosing CalculatorCalculate desired dose of dialysate in CRRTKDIGO AKI StagingClassification in acute kidney injury (AKI)
REFERENCE BOOK
KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury
AKI Definition Prevention and Treatment of AKI Contrast-induced AKI Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Introduction and Methodology
Introduction
IntroductionGlomerular filtration rate and serum creatinineOliguria and anuriaAcute tubular necrosis (ATN)ARFRIFLE criteriaAKI: acute kidney injury/impairmentValidation studies using RIFLELimitations to current definitions for AKIRationale for a guideline on AKISummary
Methodology
IntroductionGroup member selection and meeting processEvidence selection, appraisal, and presentationOutcome selection judgments, values, and preferencesGrading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendationsSPONSORSHIPDISCLAIMERSUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
AKI Definition
Definition and classification of AKI
IntroductionDefinition of AKIStaging AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary materialRisk assessmentIntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Evaluation and general management of patients with and at risk for AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch recommendationsSupplementary material
Clinical applications
IntroductionExamples of application of AKI definitionsEstimating baseline SCrExamples of application of AKI stagesUrine output vs. SCrTimeframe for diagnosis and stagingClinical judgmentPseudo-AKIAtypical AKISupplementary material
Diagnostic approach to alterations in kidney function and structure
Definitions of AKI, CKD and AKDGFR and SCrGFR/SCr algorithmOliguria as a measure of kidney functionKidney damageSmall kidneys as a marker of kidney damageIntegrated approach to AKI, AKD, and CKDSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary material
Prevention and Treatment of AKI
Hemodynamic monitoring and support for prevention and management of AKI
IntroductionFluids: Recommendations and RationaleAlbumin vs. SalineHydroxyethylstarch vs. SalineVasopressors: Recommendations and RationaleProtocolized Hemodynamic Management: Recommendations and RationaleProtocolized hemodynamic management strategies in septic shockGoal-directed therapy for hemodynamic support during the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patientsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
General supportive management of patients with AKI, including management of complications
Overview
Glycemic control and nutritional support
Glycemic control in critical illness: Recommendations and RationaleNutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of critically ill patients with AKITotal Energy Intake: Recommendations and RationaleProtein Intake: Recommendations and RationaleNutrition route: Recommendations and RationalePediatrics ConsiderationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
The use of diuretics in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleMannitolResearch Recommendations
Vasodilator therapy: dopamine, fenoldopam, and natriuretic peptides
Dopamine for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleFenoldopam for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsNatriuretic peptides for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Growth factor intervention
Recombinant Human (rh) IGF-1: Recommendations and RationaleErythropoietinResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Adenosine receptor antagonists
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Prevention of aminoglycoside- and amphotericin-related AKI
Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicityTreatment of Infections: Recommendations and RationalePatients with Normal Kidney Function in Steady State: Recommendations and RationaleWhen Treatment with Multiple Daily Dosing is Used for More than 24 Hours: Recommendations and RationaleWhen Treatment with Single-Daily Dosing is Used for More than 48 Hours: Recommendations and RationaleTopical or Local Applications of Aminoglycosides: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsAmphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Recommendations and RationaleTreatment of Systemic Mycoses or Parasitic Infections: Recommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Other methods of prevention of AKI in the critically ill
On-pump vs. off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsN-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC): Recommendations and RationaleNAC in critically ill patients: Recommendations and RationaleSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary Material
Contrast-induced AKI
Contrast-induced AKI: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis
BackgroundRecommendations and RationaleEpidemiology of CI-AKIPrognosis of CI-AKIResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Assessment of the population at risk for CI-AKI
Recommendations and RationaleRisk-factor questionnaireUrinary protein screeningOther risk factors of CI-AKIRisk models of CI-AKIPatients at Increased Risk for CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleNephrotoxicity of Gd chelatesNephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)Supplementary Material
Nonpharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI
IntroductionDose/Volume of Contrast-Media Administration: Recommendations and RationaleRoute of administration of contrast mediaResearch RecommendationsSelection of a Contrast Agent: Recommendations and RationaleHigh-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast mediaLow-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar contrast mediai.a. Iodixanol vs. ioxaglatei.v. AdministrationResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Pharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI
Fluid Administration: Recommendations and RationaleUse of oral fluids alone in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleRole of nac in the prevention of CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleTheophylline: Recommendations and RationaleFenoldopam: Recommendations and RationaleStatins in the prevention of CI-AKISupplementary Material
Effects of hemodialysis or hemofiltration
Recommendations and RationaleSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary material
Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationalePediatric considerations
Research Recommendations
Supplementary material
Criteria for stopping renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionWhen to discontinue RRT: Recommendations and RationaleUse of diuretics: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch Recommendations
Anticoagulation
IntroductionHow to decide to use anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationalePatients without an increased bleeding risk or impaired coagulation and not already receiving effective systemic anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationalePatients with increased bleeding risk who are not receiving anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationaleIn patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionUncuffed nontunneled dialysis catheter vs a tunneled catheter: Recommendations and RationaleWhen choosing a vein for insertion of a dialysis catheter in patients with AKI: Recommendations and RationaleUsing ultrasound guidance for dialysis catheter insertion: Recommendations and RationaleObtaining a chest radiograph promptly after placement and before first use of an internal jugular or subclavian dialysis catheter: Recommendations and RationaleTopical antibiotics: Recommendations and RationaleAntibiotic locks: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Dialyzer membranes for renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with AKI
IntroductionComplementary therapies in AKI patients: Recommendations and RationaleHemodynamically unstable patients: Recommendations and RationaleAKI patients with acute brain injury or other causes of increased intracranial pressure or generalized brain edema: Recommendations and RationaleProtocols for decreasing hemodynamic instability with intermittent RRTPeritoneal dialysisPediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Buffer solutions for renal replacement therapy in patients with AKI
IntroductionBuffer solution: Recommendations and RationaleDialysis fluids and replacement fluids in patients with AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Dose of renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionDosing: Recommendations and RationaleKt/V and Effluent Volume Rates: Recommendations and RationaleAdditional considerationsResearch RecommendationsSponsorshipDislcaimerSupplementary material
Organization and Acknowledgements
NoticeWork Group MembershipKDIGO Board MembersReference KeysAbbreviations and AcronymsAbstractForewordBiographic and Disclosure InformationAcknowledgmentsReferences
Illness Severity
Medical ICU
Neurologic ICU
Respiratory ICU
Emergency
Burns
General Medicine
Injuries & Trauma
Pediatrics ER
Psychiatry
Surgery
Thrombosis
Endocrinology
Gastroenterology
GI Bleed
Hepatology
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Pancreatitis
Geriatrics
ABCD² ScoreGuide admission in TIA based on ABCD² ScoreACC/AHA CV Risk Calculator (2013)Estimate 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseaseCHADS2 Score for AFAssess risk of stroke in atrial fibrillationCHA2DS2-VASc Score for AFReplacement for CHADS2 for stroke prediction in atrial fibrillationDubbo Osteoporotic Fracture RiskAssess risk of osteoporotic fractureSyncope - EGSYS ScoreWhich patients with syncope should be admitted?Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: HAS-BLED ScoreUnderstand the risk of bleeding from anticoagulation in atrial fibrillationHamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D or HDRS)Determine severity of depressionMGUS PrognosisDetermine risk of malignant progression to myleoma or lymphoproliferative disorder.Pneumonia risk (CURB-65)Estimate prognosis and determine disposition in community-acquired pneumonia.Warfarin Bleeding Risk - ElderlyEstimate 90 day risk of bleeding in patients on warfarin who are >65 yearsWater Deficit in HypernatremiaDetermine water replacement in hypernatremiaPneumonia Severity Index (PORT Score)Determine need for admission in pneumoniaeGFR using CKD-EPICalculate eGFR using the CKD-EPI formulaPatient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)Screening tool to assist in identifying major depressive disorderGeriatric Depression ScaleA questionnaire to screen for depression in geriatric populations3-Month Mortality in Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsEstimate the risk of early death (at 3 months) in elderly patients starting dialysis.Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysisGAD-7 Anxiety ScaleScreen for generalized anxiety disorderPolymyalgia Rheumatica (2012 EULAR/ACR Provisional Criteria)Review EULAR/ACR criteria for polymyalgia rheumaticaSan Francisco Syncope RuleIdentify those at low risk of adverse outcome after a syncopal episodeInternational Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)Assess severity of symptoms in benign prostatic hypertrophy
Hematology
Benign Hematology
Body Surface Area
Malignant Hematology
CMML Prognostic Scoring Systems (from Spain and Dusseldorf)Assess risk of progression to AML and early mortality in CMMLDiffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Prognosis (R-IPI)Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphomaFollicular Lymphoma prognosisDetermine prognosis in follicular lymphoma.Acute GVHD GradingDetermine severity in acute graft versus host disease.Hodgkin's Disease | PrognosisEstimate prognosis in Hodgkin's disease.Hematopoietic cell transplantation - specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI)MDS Revised - International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R)Assess mortality and progression to acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndromeHodgkin's Marrow InvolvementEstimate likelihood of bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma.MDS Intnl Prognostic Scoring Sys (IPSS)Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (ISS)MASCC Febrile Neutropenia RiskAssess risk in febrile neutropenia and appropriateness for outpatient managementMDS Anemia - EPO/GCSF ResponseIdentify those with MDS likely to respond to stem-cell factors.MDS WHO Classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS)Estimate survival and risk of transformation to AML in myelodysplastic syndrome.MGUS PrognosisDetermine risk of malignant progression to myleoma or lymphoproliferative disorder.MIPI - Mantle Cell Lymphoma PrognosisEstimate prognosis in mantle cell lymphoma.DIPSS Prognosis in MyelofibrosisEstimate prognosis in myelofibrosis.Smoldering Multiple Myeloma PrognosisDetermine risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma.Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (IPI24)Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (NCCN-IPI)Estimate prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.DIPSS Plus Score for Prognosis in MyelofibrosisEstimate prognosis in myelofibrosis.Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (R-ISS)Revised international staging system for myelomaCLL-IPIThe International Prognostic Index for patients with CLL
Infectious Disease
Medical Administration
Medical Imaging
Mental Health
Nephrology
Acute Kidney Injury
APACHE IIEstimate mortality in the critically illContrast Nephropathy Post-PCIEstimate risk of AKI after percutaneous coronary interventionDialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Cleveland Clinic Score by Thakar)Estimate risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery.Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Mehta)Estimate the risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery (Mehta model)Fractional Excretion of SodiumDifferentiate pre-renal AKI from ATN.Fractional Excretion of UreaIdentify a "pre-renal" state in patients using diureticsSequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortalityPediatric Renal Angina IndexPredict acute kidney injury in critically ill childrenSTARRT-AKI Enrollment CriteriaDetermine if patients meet criteria for the STARRT-AKI study.Kinetic eGFR (KeGFR)Estimate GFR when creatinine is changing acutely (either rising or falling)PIM2Paediatric Index of Mortality, revised versionSerious Renal Dysfunction Post-PCIAssess risk of dialysis or severe increase in creatinine after PCICRRT Dosing CalculatorCalculate desired dose of dialysate in CRRTKDIGO AKI StagingClassification in acute kidney injury (AKI)
REFERENCE BOOK
KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury
AKI Definition Prevention and Treatment of AKI Contrast-induced AKI Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Introduction and Methodology
Introduction
IntroductionGlomerular filtration rate and serum creatinineOliguria and anuriaAcute tubular necrosis (ATN)ARFRIFLE criteriaAKI: acute kidney injury/impairmentValidation studies using RIFLELimitations to current definitions for AKIRationale for a guideline on AKISummary
Methodology
IntroductionGroup member selection and meeting processEvidence selection, appraisal, and presentationOutcome selection judgments, values, and preferencesGrading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendationsSPONSORSHIPDISCLAIMERSUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
AKI Definition
Definition and classification of AKI
IntroductionDefinition of AKIStaging AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary materialRisk assessmentIntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Evaluation and general management of patients with and at risk for AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch recommendationsSupplementary material
Clinical applications
IntroductionExamples of application of AKI definitionsEstimating baseline SCrExamples of application of AKI stagesUrine output vs. SCrTimeframe for diagnosis and stagingClinical judgmentPseudo-AKIAtypical AKISupplementary material
Diagnostic approach to alterations in kidney function and structure
Definitions of AKI, CKD and AKDGFR and SCrGFR/SCr algorithmOliguria as a measure of kidney functionKidney damageSmall kidneys as a marker of kidney damageIntegrated approach to AKI, AKD, and CKDSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary material
Prevention and Treatment of AKI
Hemodynamic monitoring and support for prevention and management of AKI
IntroductionFluids: Recommendations and RationaleAlbumin vs. SalineHydroxyethylstarch vs. SalineVasopressors: Recommendations and RationaleProtocolized Hemodynamic Management: Recommendations and RationaleProtocolized hemodynamic management strategies in septic shockGoal-directed therapy for hemodynamic support during the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patientsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
General supportive management of patients with AKI, including management of complications
Overview
Glycemic control and nutritional support
Glycemic control in critical illness: Recommendations and RationaleNutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of critically ill patients with AKITotal Energy Intake: Recommendations and RationaleProtein Intake: Recommendations and RationaleNutrition route: Recommendations and RationalePediatrics ConsiderationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
The use of diuretics in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleMannitolResearch Recommendations
Vasodilator therapy: dopamine, fenoldopam, and natriuretic peptides
Dopamine for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleFenoldopam for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsNatriuretic peptides for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Growth factor intervention
Recombinant Human (rh) IGF-1: Recommendations and RationaleErythropoietinResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Adenosine receptor antagonists
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Prevention of aminoglycoside- and amphotericin-related AKI
Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicityTreatment of Infections: Recommendations and RationalePatients with Normal Kidney Function in Steady State: Recommendations and RationaleWhen Treatment with Multiple Daily Dosing is Used for More than 24 Hours: Recommendations and RationaleWhen Treatment with Single-Daily Dosing is Used for More than 48 Hours: Recommendations and RationaleTopical or Local Applications of Aminoglycosides: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsAmphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Recommendations and RationaleTreatment of Systemic Mycoses or Parasitic Infections: Recommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Other methods of prevention of AKI in the critically ill
On-pump vs. off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsN-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC): Recommendations and RationaleNAC in critically ill patients: Recommendations and RationaleSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary Material
Contrast-induced AKI
Contrast-induced AKI: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis
BackgroundRecommendations and RationaleEpidemiology of CI-AKIPrognosis of CI-AKIResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Assessment of the population at risk for CI-AKI
Recommendations and RationaleRisk-factor questionnaireUrinary protein screeningOther risk factors of CI-AKIRisk models of CI-AKIPatients at Increased Risk for CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleNephrotoxicity of Gd chelatesNephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)Supplementary Material
Nonpharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI
IntroductionDose/Volume of Contrast-Media Administration: Recommendations and RationaleRoute of administration of contrast mediaResearch RecommendationsSelection of a Contrast Agent: Recommendations and RationaleHigh-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast mediaLow-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar contrast mediai.a. Iodixanol vs. ioxaglatei.v. AdministrationResearch RecommendationsSupplementary Material
Pharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI
Fluid Administration: Recommendations and RationaleUse of oral fluids alone in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleRole of nac in the prevention of CI-AKI: Recommendations and RationaleTheophylline: Recommendations and RationaleFenoldopam: Recommendations and RationaleStatins in the prevention of CI-AKISupplementary Material
Effects of hemodialysis or hemofiltration
Recommendations and RationaleSponsorshipDisclaimerSupplementary material
Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationalePediatric considerations
Research Recommendations
Supplementary material
Criteria for stopping renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionWhen to discontinue RRT: Recommendations and RationaleUse of diuretics: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch Recommendations
Anticoagulation
IntroductionHow to decide to use anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationalePatients without an increased bleeding risk or impaired coagulation and not already receiving effective systemic anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationalePatients with increased bleeding risk who are not receiving anticoagulation: Recommendations and RationaleIn patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionUncuffed nontunneled dialysis catheter vs a tunneled catheter: Recommendations and RationaleWhen choosing a vein for insertion of a dialysis catheter in patients with AKI: Recommendations and RationaleUsing ultrasound guidance for dialysis catheter insertion: Recommendations and RationaleObtaining a chest radiograph promptly after placement and before first use of an internal jugular or subclavian dialysis catheter: Recommendations and RationaleTopical antibiotics: Recommendations and RationaleAntibiotic locks: Recommendations and RationalePediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Dialyzer membranes for renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionRecommendations and RationaleResearch Recommendations
Modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with AKI
IntroductionComplementary therapies in AKI patients: Recommendations and RationaleHemodynamically unstable patients: Recommendations and RationaleAKI patients with acute brain injury or other causes of increased intracranial pressure or generalized brain edema: Recommendations and RationaleProtocols for decreasing hemodynamic instability with intermittent RRTPeritoneal dialysisPediatric considerationsResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Buffer solutions for renal replacement therapy in patients with AKI
IntroductionBuffer solution: Recommendations and RationaleDialysis fluids and replacement fluids in patients with AKI: Recommendations and RationaleResearch RecommendationsSupplementary material
Dose of renal replacement therapy in AKI
IntroductionDosing: Recommendations and RationaleKt/V and Effluent Volume Rates: Recommendations and RationaleAdditional considerationsResearch RecommendationsSponsorshipDislcaimerSupplementary material
Organization and Acknowledgements
NoticeWork Group MembershipKDIGO Board MembersReference KeysAbbreviations and AcronymsAbstractForewordBiographic and Disclosure InformationAcknowledgmentsReferences
Chronic Kidney Disease
Fluids & Electrolytes
Glomerulonephritis
Hemodialysis
Hypertension
Nephrolithiasis
PD
PD Candidacy (MATCH-D)Assess candidacy for peritoneal dialysis3-Month Mortality in Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsEstimate the risk of early death (at 3 months) in elderly patients starting dialysis.Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis
REFERENCE BOOK
Access Care and Complications Management
OverviewDisclaimer & Use of the Guide
Catheter Insertion and Care
Preoperative Management
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Perioperative and Intraoperative Management
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Postoperative Management
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Chronic Care of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Noninfectious Complications
Pericatheter and Subcutaneous Leaks
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Peritoneal Catheter Obstruction
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Hernia
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Abdominal Discomfort During Infusion and Drain
Key AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Pneumoperitoneum (Shoulder Pain)
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Hemoperitoneum
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Hydrothorax
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Catheter Adapter Disconnect or Fracture of Peritoneal Catheter
Key AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes Evaluation
Infectious Complications: Peritonitis Management
Initial Empiric Management of Peritonitis
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes EvaluationInitial Empiric Management of PeritonitisStaphyloccocus aureus PeritonitisEnterococcus/Streptococcus PeritonitisOther Single Gram-positive Organism PeritonitisPseudomonas PeritonitisOther Single Gram-negative Organism PeritonitisPolymicrobial PeritonitisCulture-negative PeritonitisFungal PeritonitisPeritonitis Due to MycobacteriumRelapsing PeritonitisPeritonitis Terminology
Infectious Complications: Management of the Exit-site/Tunnel Infection
Introduction
IntroductionKey AssessmentsKey ActivitiesPatient EducationOutcomes EvaluationDiagnosis and Management of Exit-site/Tunnel Infection
Antibiotic Dosing Guidelines
Oral Antibiotics Used in Exit-site and Tunnel InfectionsExit-site Antibiotic ProphylaxisIntraperitoneal Antibiotic Dosing Recommendations for CAPD PatientsIntermittent Dosing of Antibiotics in Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD)
Appendix
Preoperative and Postoperative PD Catheter Insertion Instructions for PatientsPeritoneal ImagingPrinciples of Accurate Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Sampling and CulturingPeritoneal Effluent Culture Laboratory ProcessingPeritonitis Rate CalculationsDifferential Diagnosis of Non-infectious Cloudy EffluentProviding for a Safe Environment for Peritoneal DialysisNormal Bacterial Flora of the Human BodyReferencesAuthor Affiliations
ISPD Guidelines for Peritoneal Access
REFERENCE BOOK
CSN PD Adequacy Guidelines and Recommendations 2011
Maintenance of RRF
Measurement of RRFUse of Antihypertensive Agents and Diuretis to Preserve RRF
Small-Solute Clearance
Prescription and Targets
Volume Management
Maintenance of Euvolemia and Diagnosis of HypervolemiaTreatment of HypervolemiaAssessment and Management of BP
Management of CV Disease in PD Patients
Dyslipidemia
Nutrition in PD
NutritionNutritional SupplementsCorrection of Impared Anabolism, Acidosis, and Gastroparesis
Management of Hyperglycemia
Glycemic ControlGlucose-Sparing Strategies
Introduction
OverviewMethods and Process for Guideline DevelopmentFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3
Maintenance of RRF
Measurement of RRF
Overview
Use of Antihypertensive Agents and Diuretics to Preserve RRF
OverviewBackground
Research
Overview
Small-Solute Clearance
Prescriptions and Targets
OverviewBackground
Volume Management
Maintenance of Euvolemia and Diagnosis of Hypervolemia
OverviewBackground
Treatment of Hypervolemia
OverviewBackground
Assessment and Management of BP
OverviewBackground
Management of CV Disease in PD Patients
Dyslipidemia
OverviewBackground
Coronary Artery Disease/Chronic Heart Failure
Overview
Research
Overview
Nutrition in PD
Nutrition
OverviewBackground
Nutritional Supplements
OverviewBackground
Correction of Impaired Anabolism, Acidosis, and Gastroparesis
OverviewBackground
Research
Overview
Management of Hyperglycemia
Glycemic Control
OverviewBackground
Glucose-Sparing Strategies
OverviewBackgroundDisclosuresReferences
REFERENCE BOOK
PD Prescription Guide
Pathology
Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Transplant
eGFR
Neurology / Neurosurgery
Arteriovenous Malformation
Coma/Level of Consciousness
Dermatome Map
Functional Outcome
Head & Neck Trauma
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Ischemic Stroke
Neurophysiology
Seizure
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Obstetrics
Oncology
Body Surface Area
Head & Neck Cancer Staging
Malignant Hematology
CMML Prognostic Scoring Systems (from Spain and Dusseldorf)Assess risk of progression to AML and early mortality in CMMLDiffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Prognosis (R-IPI)Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphomaFollicular Lymphoma prognosisDetermine prognosis in follicular lymphoma.Acute GVHD GradingDetermine severity in acute graft versus host disease.Hodgkin's Disease | PrognosisEstimate prognosis in Hodgkin's disease.Hematopoietic cell transplantation - specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI)MDS Revised - International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R)Assess mortality and progression to acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndromeHodgkin's Marrow InvolvementEstimate likelihood of bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma.MDS Intnl Prognostic Scoring Sys (IPSS)Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (ISS)MASCC Febrile Neutropenia RiskAssess risk in febrile neutropenia and appropriateness for outpatient managementMDS Anemia - EPO/GCSF ResponseIdentify those with MDS likely to respond to stem-cell factors.MDS WHO Classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS)Estimate survival and risk of transformation to AML in myelodysplastic syndrome.MGUS PrognosisDetermine risk of malignant progression to myleoma or lymphoproliferative disorder.MIPI - Mantle Cell Lymphoma PrognosisEstimate prognosis in mantle cell lymphoma.DIPSS Prognosis in MyelofibrosisEstimate prognosis in myelofibrosis.Smoldering Multiple Myeloma PrognosisDetermine risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma.Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (IPI24)Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (NCCN-IPI)Estimate prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.DIPSS Plus Score for Prognosis in MyelofibrosisEstimate prognosis in myelofibrosis.Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (R-ISS)Revised international staging system for myeloma
Solid Tumor
Orthopedics
Otolaryngology (ENT)
Pediatrics
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Preventive Medicine
Respirology
Rheumatology
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Diagnostic criteria
Lupus
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Vasculitis
Surgery
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Preoperative Assessment
Surgical diagnosis & management
Trauma
WHO Surgical Safety Checklist
Urology
Vascular Surgery
Emergency / Urology / Respirology / Hematology / Orthopedics / Critical Care / Medical Imaging

PE Clinical Probability

Determine pretest probability of PE to guide workup
DVT symptoms: Leg swelling and pain with palpation in the deep-vein region?